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"... And only Russia is still capable to shake by riches of the natural heritage today. To save up this wonderful nature - here is a chance to survive to the future generations".

His Royal Highnes Prince Phillip,
the Duke of Edinburgh
,
Honorary President of the World Wild fund.

THE FUTURE ON LOAN

Evgeniy Kabanov,
Chairman of OOO "Center Soya" Board of Directors
Sergey Dmitruk, Nikolay Korobov
Experts of OOO "TerraBio"

To live in harmony with nature, it is necessary to acquire its laws. We have to understand, that we have only taken the planet on loan from our children. Our duty - to return it is in good condition, having kept its numerous treasures. Such things as ruthless operation of minerals, energy carriers and woods are off the question. New technologies can serve only for some better protection of the environment.

Greenhouse effect

 

As a result of man's influence on the nature there was change of the climate. According to IPCC opinion  - International scientific commission under aegis of the United Nations - greenhouse gases are responsible for process of climate change on the planet. They account that consequences of this change are hurricanes, epidemics, flooding, desertification, growth of mid-annual temperature that conducts to thawing glaciers and increase of  world ocean level.
The climate of the Earth is influenced with constant inflow of solar energy. This energy as a rule acts in the form of visible light. About 30% of energy once is reflected back to the space, but other the biggest part (70%) penetrates through the atmosphere and heats up the Earth's surface (see picture 1).

 

Being much more colder than the Sun, the Earth lets out energy not in the range of visible light but as infra-red or thermal radiation. This radiation is similar to heat which gives electric fireplace or barbecue before its rods would be "red-hot".

Увеличить

                                                                                                                               Picture 1

The Earth gives back to space this energy in the form of infra-red radiation.
 
"Greenhouse gases" absorb infra-red radiation in the atmosphere and do not allow it to leave at once in space from the Earth's surface. Infra-red radiation can not pass directly through air as visible light. Instead of it the most part of proceeding energy is carried away by streams of air from the Earth's surface and finally, reaching the heights located outside with the most dense layers of "cover" consisting of greenhouse gases, does not ingress to the space.
 
Kyoto Protocol determines the following greenhouse gases:

  • Carbon dioxide (CO2);
  • Methane (CH4);
  • Nitrous oxide (N2O);
  • Hydrofluorine carbons (HFC);
  • Fluorine carbons (CF);
  • Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6).

All together these gases amount less than 1% of the atmosphere, however it is enough to create "natural greenhouse effect". All emissions and quotas are counted in CO2 equivalent.
Today the planet "warms up" faster than ever for the last of 10 thousand years.
In some decades the general damage of Russia from change of climate can amount $8-10 billion per one year and result to the loss of 45% of the Russian flora and fauna species.

*Note: Kyoto Protocol - the most important ecological international agreement ratified by 165 states according to which industrially developed countries of the world incur obligations to reduce carbonic and other greenhouse gases emissions in the atmosphere. The nearest purpose of countries-participants - by 2008 to reduce emissions on the average 5% from the 1990 level.

Cows have accused of global warming

If earlier scientists were named the main reason of global warming with automobiles now it was found out, that they not so harmful, as dumb animals. For 15 months cow gains in weight about 500 kg and lets out in the atmosphere quantity of the methane equivalent from the point of view of greenhouse effect to 75 thousand of kilometers of run - five times above than the average automobile rolls for the same time. Thus there are about 1,3 billion cows on the Earth - it is twofold than automobiles. It turns out, that the animal industries give much more greenhouse gases, than the machine.

Millions tons of liquid manure per one year - inevitable consequence of industrialization of animal farms. As a rule, the huge amount of manure is concentrated on the small areas. It results in exhalation of methane from open storehouses in huge quantity and as consequence to increase of "greenhouse effect". The decision of this problem is engaged all over the world.

Variants of the decision

There are known variants of gathering manure drains in open storehouses, and then their entering in plough-pan layer by means of special cultivators. But it is necessary to remember, that fresh manure drains can not be high-grade fertilizer for plants as for transform of manure in the accessible form to the plants are necessary several years. 

Other variant of the decision of the problem is division of manure drains on liquid and firm fractions with the help of separators. Such transportation of firm fraction to the place of its entering into the soil becomes more effective. However fresh manure drains contain seeds of weed plants and helminth ova. This technology does not reduce completely  allocation of methane in the atmosphere.

There is also a variant of recycling when manure transforms in biogas and organic fertilizer. This technology completely blocks access of methane in the environment. Besides biogas can be used for reception of thermal and - or electric energy, and received fertilizers do not contain pathogenic microflora. This technology also promotes reception of non-polluting agricultural production and allows to improve ecological conditions as a whole.

There already exists some experience of creation of similar installations in Russia which produce biogas from organic waste of agricultural production. In particular, AO "Centre EcoRos" has developed and organized manufacture of biogas installations for small farms. But other, more powerful installations are necessary for the big complexes. We would like to enlarge upon this theme, in particular, on "AES Agriverde" bioreactors.

"AES Agriverde" bioreactors

"AES Agriverde" bioreactors are completely ecologically protected systems of liquid organic drains processing which are capable to catch biogas (mainly methane and, in some lesser degree, nitrogen oxides) and to prevent hit of biogas in an atmosphere.

Section of bioreactor is filled with biogas

There is biological processing of continuously acting fresh manure in bioreactor without access of oxygen. As a result of methanic fermentation of manure the significant amount of protein nitrogen passes in ammoniac nitrogen accessible to plants, which coagulates organic substance. The further application of the organic mass considerably raises productivity of field crops. Besides such organic has no characteristic unpleasant smell as ammonia is joined by means of carbon dioxide in carbonic ammonium. It is possible to add, that methanic fermentation is recommended as most perspective of all existing methods  of liquid organic drains processing as it provides disinfecting, dehelminthization, enables to receive highly effective non-polluting organic fertilizer, and the caught biogas also can be used for own needs of agricultural enterprises such as electric power generation, heating and hot water.

Destruction (burning) of the methane contained in biogas, results in prevention of hit of the given gas in the atmosphere. Thus "AES Agriverde" reduces emissions of greenhouse gases getting in the atmosphere and promotes easing of negative influence of these gases on the environment. Due to mechanisms of Kyoto Protocol which was ratified by Russia, reduction of greenhouse gases emissions, received as a result of realization of such project, can be sold to the interested buyer or transferred to the investor, within framework of Joint Implementation mechanisms of Kyoto Protocol.

"AES Agriverde" has opportunity to realize such reductions of emissions in the world market and is ready to invest the means in projects on reduction of GH emissions. One of the main features of projects "AES Agriverde" is that in Russia the company will build up bioreactors at its own expense. Moreover, the part of the profit received as a result of realization of JI projects the farm can get on its account.

In Russia the partner of "AES Agriverde" is OОО "Kubanagroprod". Now company "Kubanagroprod" has started selection of cattle-breeding farms with the purpose of preparation of the necessary documentation and submission of applications for statements of projects in МEDT of Russia*.

*Note: Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation M.E. Fradkov has signed the decision №332 28.05.07 "About the order of the statement and check of course of realization of the projects which are carried out according to clause 6 Kyoto Protocol to Frame convention of the United Nations about change of the climate". Now MEDT finishes works of the normative and methodical base necessary for preparation of JI projects to the statement


 

 

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