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Kyoto Protocol
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Greenhouse gases

As a result of man's influence on the nature there was change of the climate. According to IPCC opinion  - International scientific commission under aegis of the United Nations -greenhouse gases are responsible for process of climate change on the planet. They account that consequences of this change are hurricanes, epidemics, flooding, desertification, growth of mid-annual temperature that conducts to thawing glaciers and increase of  world ocean level.

The climate of the Earth is influenced with constant inflow of solar energy. This energy as a rule acts in the form of visible light. About 30% of energy once is reflected back to the space, but the other biggest part (70%) penetrates through the atmosphere and heats up the Earth's surface (see picture 1).


   Picture 1

 The Earth gives back to space this energy in the form of infra-red radiation.

"Greenhouse gases" in the atmosphere absorb infra-red radiation, do not allow it to leave at once in space from the Earth's surface. Infra-red radiation can not pass directly through air as visible light. Instead of it the most part of proceeding energy is carried away by streams of air from the Earth's surface and finally, reaching the heights located outside with the most dense layers of "cover" consisting of greenhouse gases, does not ingress to the space.

Kyoto Protocol determines the following greenhouse gases:

  • Carbon dioxide (СО2);
  • Methane (СН4);
  • Nitrous oxide (N2O);
  • hydrofluorine carbons (HFC);
  • fluorine carbons (CF);
  • sulfur hexafluoride (SF6).

All together these gases amounts less than 1% of the atmosphere, however it is enough to create "natural greenhouse effect". All emissions and quotas are counted in СО2 equivalent.

Today the planet "warms up" faster than ever for the last of 10 thousand years.
In some decades the general damage of Russia from change of climate can amount $8-10 billion per one year and result to the loss of 45% of the Russian flora and fauna species.

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